The Sedona Conference® Glossary, 3rd Edition, Copyright © 2010, Reprinted with permission.
Validate: In the context of this document, to confirm or ensure well-grounded logic, and true and accurate determinations.
VAR/VAD/VASD (Value-Added Reseller/Value-Added Dealer/Value-Added Specialty Distributor): Companies or people who sell computer hardware or software and “add-value” in the process. Usually, the value added is specific technical or marketing knowledge and/or experience.
VDT (Video Display Terminal): Generic name for all display terminals.
Vector: Representation of graphic images by mathematical formulas. For instance, a circle is defined by a specific position and radius. Vector images are typically smoother than raster images.
Vendor-Added Metadata: Data created and maintained by the electronic discovery vendor as a result of processing the document. While some vendor-added metadata has direct value to customers, much of it is used for process reporting, chain of custody, and data accountability. Contrast with User-Added Metadata. See also Metadata.
Verbatim Coding: Manually extracting data from documents in a way that matches exactly as the information appears in the documents. See Coding.
Version, Record Version: A particular form or variation of an earlier or original record. For electronic records the variations may include changes to file format, metadata, or content.
Vertical De-Duplication: A process through which duplicate documents/data are eliminated within a single custodial or production data set. See also Content Comparison, File-level Binary Comparison Horizontal De-duplication, Metadata Comparison, and Near De-Duplication.
VGA (Video Graphics Adapter): A computer industry standard, first introduced by IBM in 1987, for color video displays. The minimum dot (pixel) display is 640 x 480 x 16 colors. Then “Super VGA” was introduced at 800 x 600 x 16, then 256 colors. VGA can extend to 1024 x 768 x 256 colors. Replaces EGA, an earlier standard and the even older CGA. Newer standard displays can range up to 1600 x 1280.
Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA): Concentrates on computer video standards.
Video Scanner Interface: A type of device used to connect scanners with computers. Scanners with this interface require a scanner control board designed by Kofax, Xionics, or Dunord.
Virtualization: Partitioning a server into multiple “virtual” servers, each capable of running an independent operating system and associated software applications as though it were a separate machine. Virtualization is particularly useful for centralized IT infrastructures to manage multiple computing environments with the same set of hardware, and for cloud computing providers to provide customized interfaces to clients without investing in separate machines, each with its own operating system.
Virus: A self-replicating program that spreads on a computer or network by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. A program into which a virus has inserted itself is said to be infected, and the infected file (or executable code that is not part of a file) is a host. Viruses are a kind of malware that range from harmless to destructive and damage computers by either destroying data or overwhelming the computer’s resources. See Malware.
Vital Record: A record that is essential to the organization’s operation or to the reestablishment of the organization after a disaster.
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol): Telephonic capability across an Internet connection.
Volume: A specific amount of storage space on computer storage media such as hard drives, floppy disks, CD- ROM disks, etc. In some instances, computer media may contain more than one volume, while in others, one volume may be contained on more than one disk.
Volume Boot Sector/Record: When a partition is formatted to create a volume, a volume boot sector is created to store information about the volume. One volume contains the operating system and its volume boot sector contains code used to load the operating system when the computer is booted up. See Partition.
VMWare: A provider of virtualization software.
VPN (Virtual Private Network): A secure network that is constructed by using public wires to connect nodes. For example, there are a number of systems that enable creation of networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. These systems use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.